Quantitative research involves quantities or numbers that allows investigators to quantify data. This is measurable research that researchers can statistically analyze to gain deeper understanding.
The benefits of using quantitative methods to understand a topic better is that it provides numerical opportunities to explore the relationships between quantifiable data, or to provide a comparison between data relationships.
Dr. Liz Fitzgerald at the Institute of Educational Technology provides a great explanation of quantitative approaches:
Fitzgerald, 2016, http://www.open.ac.uk/blogs/CALRG/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/intro-qual-quant.pptx
Four Types of Quantitative Research:
Types of Research Tools
Quantitative data collection tools, or instruments are focused on random sampling and collecting data that can be easily "summarized, compare, and generalize" ("Data Collection Methods", n.d.) Researchers can collect quantitative data in a variety of ways but there are some broad categories under which some instruments fall:
"Data collection methods". (n.d.) Retrieved from https://www.ndcompass.org/health/GFMCHC/Revised%20Data%20Collection%20Tools%203-1-12.pdf; Marczyk, G. R., DeMatteo, D., & Festinger, D. (2005). Essentials of research design and methodology. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.